The Preoperative Cardiovascular Evaluation consists in the performance of a comprehensive medical examination, which includes the realization of a precise clinical history and a complete physical examination aimed at establishing the potential risk factors inherent to the patient, and to the surgical intervention.
The preoperative cardiovascular evaluation has the purpose of determining the presence of diseases that may affect the surgical risk, the prognosis and / or the recovery of the patient.
In the preoperative evaluation, the doctor obtains the general data of the patient, family history, personal pathological history, and toxic habits that could lead to potential cardiovascular, pulmonary or metabolic complications during the surgery.
During the cardiovascular evaluation the doctor will perform a series of tests in order to rule out the existence of any heart disease. The most used tests are:
The electrocardiogram (EKG) is an important part of the basic preoperative evaluation of each patient since it allows to identify alterations in the electrical activity of the heart such as arrhythmias, conduction disorders, hypertrophy, or ischemia. The presence of an abnormal EKG considerably increases the risk of the surgery.
The echocardiogram is a diagnostic test that offers a moving image of the heart through the use of ultrasound. In this way you can see not only the anatomy of the heart, but also the functionality, that is, if the cavities move correctly or the valves open and close properly. The results allow the cardiologist to determine if there are heart and / or vascular diseases.
Chest radiography is an important part of the pre-surgical evaluation because it allows to identify medical conditions that could condition the delay or cancellation of surgery such as the presence of cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure or fluid around the lungs.